The Development of Pastoral Farming
Livestocks are most commonly defined as domestic animals raised for profit in an urban setting to make milk, eggs, meat, fur, and other livestock-related products like leather, eggs, and wool. In the United States, cattle and horses are the two primary species used to cultivate livestock. Other common breeds are llama (lamb), goat, pony, turkey, bison, elk, buffalo, deer, elk, moose, bear, rat, squirrel, turkey, rabbit, quail, turkey, venison, and hen. Livestock can be classified into three further categories: domestic, wild-cattle, and feral.
A distinguishing characteristic of pastoralism is its devotion to a community or group of communities instead of an individual. Through the centuries, many different social arrangements have arisen among pastoralists depending on the region in which they lived. In early years, in the beginning stages of pastoralism, the family unit was the greatest unit of communal interaction; thereafter, however, relationships between groups of families emerged. The primary emphasis was on cultivating a large flock of sheep and cattle as a source of local food, as well as on providing a secure and comfortable living for the sheep and cattle. The idea was to create a self-sufficient economic and spiritual community with a sense of community. In modern times, this concept has become much broader to include concerns about the environment, immigration, development, wildlife, conservation, and quality of life issues.
Because of their pioneering role in agricultural farming, the American pastoralists played a crucial role in the development of modern day pastoral science and management practices. Many of the techniques that the pastoralists of yesteryear – such as crop rotation, fencing, fertilization, irrigation, horticulture, and sheltering – are now commonly used by modern farmers, ranchers, and stock breeders. Through the efforts of these individuals and groups, a balance between the spiritual and material aspects of community life was achieved. Today, the practices of pastoralism have been adapted by many individuals and groups, resulting in an expanded definition of pastoral farming.